The Serbian second seed overcame the spirited Latvian 6-3 6-3 3-6 6-3 on Court Philippe Chatrier to book a spot in Sunday's showpiece, where he will face either eight-time champion Rafael Nadal or Andy Murray.
Djokovic has tasted victory at the Australian Open, US Open and Wimbledon, meaning the Roland Garros title is the only major trophy missing from his cabinet.
He lost to Nadal in the 2012 French Open final - one of five defeats to the Spaniard in Paris - but may now have the chance to exact revenge on him this weekend.
Djokovic took no time to get into his stride on Friday, with 18th seed Gulbis finding it tough to cope with the world number two.
After saving two break points in the fourth game of the match, six-time grand slam winner Djokovic powered his way through the opening set by breaking his opponent twice.
Just one break - in the eighth game - was sufficient for the Serb to take the second set, but Gulbis battled back valiantly in the third by repeating that pattern to pull a set back.
That was just the second set Djokovic has lost in this year's tournament, and he looked rattled when giving his early break in the fourth as Gulbis drew level at 2-2.
However, the 27-year-old regained his composure and again broke in the eighth game to finally end Gulbis' challenge and reach his 13th grand slam final.