Earlier, Spanish number three seed David Ferrer reached the last 16 for a 15th successive major with a straight-sets win over Frenchman Jeremy Chardy and unseeded German Florian Mayer reached the fourth round here for the first time when he upset unsettled Polish 20th seed Jerzy Janowicz.
Having conceded just 10 games in beating Kazakhstani Aleksandr Nedovyesov in the first round and only eight in defeating Frenchman Kenny De Schepper on Wednesday, Berydch was again in good touch at Hisense Arena as he beat grand slam debutant Damir Dzumhur 6-4 6-2 6-2.
Now one win away from reaching the quarter-finals at Melbourne Park for a fourth year in a row, Berdych will have to get past South African 19th seed Kevin Anderson, who overcame Frenchman Edouard Roger-Vasselin 3-6 4-6 6-3 7-6 (7-5) 7-5.
Berdych has won all nine of his previous meetings against Anderson, including the corresponding round at Melbourne Park last year and is 2-0 in head-to-head meetings with Roger-Vasselin.
Not since his third-round exit against Jurgen Melzer at the 2010 French Open has Ferrer failed to at least reach the round of 16 at a grand slam.
And, apart from in the second set when 29th seed Chardy served to try and level the match at a set each, Ferrer largely did as he does best running down everything as he wore his opponent down.
The 6-2 7-6 (7-5) 6-2 victory, achieved in 132 minutes at Rod Laver Arena, puts Ferrer on a collision course with Mayer as he seeks to at least emulate his semi-final appearances at the Australian Open in 2011 and '13.
With 22 winners Ferrer, who boasts a 4-3 win-loss record from seven previous meetings against Mayer, failed to hit as many as Chardy (30) but the Frenchman's 51 unforced errors to Ferrer's 24 proved costly.
Mayer had twice previously been to the third round at the year's opening major, in 2007 when he was beaten by compatriot Tommy Haas and in 2010 when he took a set off Juan Martin Del Potro before losing to the Argentine for the second time in 12 months at Melbourne Park.
And while a meeting with Janowicz on paper presented as a far more difficult encounter, Mayer made it three wins from as many meetings between the pair as he prevailed 7-5 6-2 6-2 in just 98 minutes.
The opening set was a cagey affair that looked headed for a tie-breaker as each held serve until 5-5 but the first break of the match in the 11th game would prove decisive as Mayer grabbed the advantage.
From 4-5 behind in that opening set Mayer would go on to win 15 of the final 19 games of the match as he broke again in the first and fifth games of the second set and then raced through the third in only 23 minutes.