Pragyan Ojha ended with figures of 5-49 and Ravi Ashwin took 4-89 as the visitors barely resisted the home side's spin attack in Mumbai on Saturday, capitulating for just 187 and handing victory to the hosts by an innings and 126 runs - India's biggest triumph over the West Indies.
Tendulkar saluted the fans as he departed the field at the Wankhede Stadium, in what was his last competitive appearance in a decorated career.
The West Indies started the day at 43-3 and the tourists began strongly with Chris Gayle crushing three boundaries off Ashwin's second over.
But in just the fifth over of the day, Ojha dismissed Marlon Samuels (11) after a smart stumping from MS Dhoni and the capitulation began.
Ojha took the next two wickets as the tourists quickly slumped to 89-6 before Shivnarine Chanderpaul and Denesh Ramdin put together a 68-run stand to add a shred of respectability to the scoreboard.
When Ashwin trapped Chanderpaul lbw, however, any hope of the West Indies making India - and retiree Tendulkar - bat again was gone.
The fans did get to see the 40-year-old bowl but Tendulkar was unable to pick up a wicket as the West Indies' tail quickly fell before lunch.
Mohammed Shami's dismissal of Shannon Gabriel ended the match and the Indian team quickly formed a rolling guard of honour to shepherd Tendulkar off the ground.
Ramdin top scored for the West Indies with an unbeaten 53, while Chanderpaul (41) and Gayle (35) were the other main contributors for the visiting team.
The victory ensured India claimed a 2-0 whitewash of the two-Test series and will give them plenty of confidence heading into three one-day internationals against the Caribbean tourists.